• November 12, 2023

Unlocking Economic Potential: A Comprehensive Approach to Poverty Reduction

A Policy of Poverty Reduction

Poverty reduction is not just about providing people with the monetary resources they need to live life with dignity. It is also about protecting them against domestic and external shocks.

Achieving a well-integrated poverty reduction strategy will require juggling a great many objectives and trade-offs. Achieving sustainable, high-quality and broad-based economic growth is critical; so is ensuring that the poor benefit from it.

The definition of poverty

A common definition of poverty involves the lack of sufficient money to afford basic needs. However, the problem extends beyond monetary needs to include social deprivation.

Poverty can be measured in a variety of ways, but the most common method is to calculate the number of people who live below a specific threshold. Typically, this threshold is set by the government and takes into account the cost of living in each country.

Using this method, it’s important to consider price adjustments and currency fluctuations. For example, the cost of a loaf of bread in one country may differ from that of another country due to currency fluctuations.

In addition, a comprehensive poverty reduction strategy must address the overall economic growth rate of the country. This is because high and sustainable rates of economic growth are essential for poverty alleviation. This is especially important because poverty is caused by more than just a lack of money.

The role of the public sector

The public sector is a broad economic category that includes government-run organizations and agencies. These entities provide products and services that are deemed to be essential to society, such as infrastructure, education, healthcare, and social welfare programs. Unlike the private sector, these organizations do not seek to generate a profit.

Public-sector businesses also play a critical role in tackling poverty. They may provide basic necessities like food and shelter to the poor, or they may support research and development that can help alleviate poverty. They may also promote policies that foster fair competition and equality.

Many governments are using their power to reduce poverty. These include the creation of new programs like SNAP (a nationwide food stamp program created in 1974), tax credits for low-income households, and stronger Social Security benefits. These stronger policies have driven down poverty overall and among children, even after accounting for the impact of government assistance and taxes. However, racial and ethnic disparities persist in poverty, reflecting the legacy of past discrimination both public and private.

The role of the private sector

A vibrant private sector creates jobs, raises incomes and makes better, cheaper goods available. Governments can promote such enterprises by removing barriers to their growth, including excessive red tape, government subsidies, oligarchy and monopoly. Governments also can encourage competition by loosening protection against competing imports, and through regional trade and currency arrangements that open markets.

Poverty, in its most severe form, inhibits the full enjoyment of human rights. Its immediate alleviation and eventual elimination must remain a global development priority for governments, the private sector and other partners.

Fighting poverty isn’t just about money but rather unlocking huge economic potential within a country. This is why the focus should be on relative as opposed to absolute poverty. The former compares households on the basis of a set income level which differs from country to country but can be changed by a country’s overall economic performance. The latter, by contrast, focuses on people who are consistently below the poverty line regardless of overall economic growth.

The role of the international community

Poverty reduction is a challenge for all countries, which need to improve their ability to translate tax revenue and foreign aid into poverty reduction programs that work. They also need to find ways to reduce the risk of natural disasters and conflict that can drive families into poverty or leave them trapped in cycles of dependence and recurrent need for assistance.

The international community can help by creating the conditions that enable people to get decent jobs and build self-sufficient livelihoods, respecting and supporting human rights and labour rights, and promoting social and economic transformation. It can also support a pro-poor growth agenda, which seeks to maximize the benefits of sustained economic growth for poor people. This requires combining market-friendly growth policies with redistributive policies. These policies can include job creation, education, healthcare and housing subsidies. It can also help by improving the quality of trade policy data, and addressing constraints on exports that are beyond the control of individual countries.

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Federal Poverty Guidelines and Eligibility for Programs

HHS Poverty Guidelines 2019

Each year, HHS updates the poverty guidelines. These are annual income levels, based on family size, used as an eligibility criterion by many programs.

These include Head Start, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP or “food stamps”), National School Lunch Program, and some parts of Medicaid. Major means-tested programs such as the Earned Income Tax Credit do not use the HHS poverty guidelines.

What are the guidelines?

The guidelines are an important measure of income for many purposes, including determining eligibility for certain programs and benefits. For example, people with incomes below the 2023 FPL are eligible for savings on Marketplace health insurance plans and for Medicaid and CHIP coverage. The guidelines (or percentage multiples of the guidelines — for instance, 125 percent or 185 percent of the guidelines) also are used as a criterion in calculating eligibility for some major means-tested programs, such as Head Start, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, and the National School Lunch Program.

State and local governments, private companies (including utilities and telephone companies), and some charitable agencies also use the guidelines in setting eligibility for their services to low-income persons. This notice updates the poverty guidelines to account for a 2.4 percent increase in prices measured by the Consumer Price Index between calendar years 2017 and 2018. These updated guidelines are effective January 13, 2021, unless an office administering a program that uses them specifies a different effective date.

How do they work?

Many federal programs use the poverty guidelines to determine eligibility for benefits such as food assistance, child care, health insurance, and help paying home heating costs. The eligibility levels for those programs vary widely, but they all base their calculations on the same official annual poverty thresholds published by the United States Census Bureau and updated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to reflect changes in the cost of living.

The guidelines are usually effective as soon as they’re published in the Federal Register each year, which is typically in late January, although some programs make them effective at a later date, as specified in their authorizing legislation or program regulations. Programs that use the guidelines in determining eligibility include Head Start, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the National School Lunch Program, and the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program.

Individuals who have incomes at or below 125% of the FPG may be eligible for certain Medicaid coverage. However, questions about how specific programs apply the guidelines should be directed to the relevant program administrators.

What are the eligibility levels?

The HHS poverty guidelines are used by many Federal programs as an eligibility criterion. These include Head Start, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly food stamps), the National School Lunch Program, and the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program. They are also used by some State and local programs, and by private companies that offer services to low-income households. Most major means-tested programs, however, do not use the poverty guidelines in determining eligibility.

Questions about what income is counted for purposes of a particular program should be directed to the office or organization that administers the program. Different programs may count differently before-tax or after-tax income, and some may use a percentage multiple of the HHS poverty guidelines to determine eligibility.

The poverty guidelines are issued in late January each year, and are adjusted for price changes over the previous calendar year using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). Most programs that use the guidelines make them effective on the date of publication unless they specify a later date in their authorizing legislation or program regulations.

How do I find out if I qualify?

You may be able to get certain programs that help pay for health insurance by having income at or below the poverty guidelines. Each program, though, sets its own eligibility rules and definitions of what counts as income. For example, some programs use after-tax income, while others consider gross or net income. It is best to contact the specific office that administers the program in question.

The HHS poverty guidelines are a simplification of the thresholds set with the official poverty measure, and they are used as an eligibility criterion by many federal agencies for means-tested programs such as Medicaid, premium tax credits, and more. The guidelines may also be used as a reference for the calculation of local income limits (e.g., for housing programs in San Francisco).

You can find more information on the HHS poverty guidelines at their website. Poverty levels for each year since 1982 are available here. (These numbers reflect prices through calendar year 2018.) You can find more information on how the HHS poverty guidelines are calculated here.

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Bringing the Thrill of Live Sports to Your Screen

In the rapidly evolving world of sport, you’ll often find yourself eager not to miss a single moment of action and excitement. This is where 스포츠중계, or sports broadcast, steps into the picture.

Have you ever wondered about the energy that buzzing stadium vibes generate during a live match? The answer is the unique and exhilarating magic of sports that captivates us like no other form of entertainment does. Now, imagine the same excitement rushing to your living room or mobile screen in real-time. That’s the beauty and power of 스포츠중계.

Sporting events infuse us with indomitable spirits and inspire millions. The captivating aura, the unpredictable nature, and the giant-sized dreams these events carry are larger than life. As sports enthusiasts, we crave the thrill of live sports—the heart-stopping moments, the cheers, the tears.

Ask yourself, what would sport be without its raw emotions? Absolutely nothing! Picture a football match toddling along without the electrifying energy thrust into it by a live broadcast—the earth-shattering goals, the breathtaking saves, and the fluctuation in scores, all dismissed into a series of monotonous numbers. It’s the broadcasts that bring sport into reality. The takes you to the heart of the action, ensuring you never miss a single detail.

Lastly, due importance should be given to accessibility. Wherever you reside, whatever sport you’re a fan of, sports broadcast makes it possible to watch live sports from all corners of the globe – at the comfort of your home or while you’re on the move. So the next time you cheer for your favorite team or player, remember, it’s 스포츠중계 behind the miracle you’re witnessing.


1.Q: What does 스포츠중계 mean?
A: 스포츠중계 translates to “sports broadcast” in English. It refers to the live telecast or streaming of a sporting event.

2.Q: What is the role of 스포츠중계 in sports?
A: 스포츠중계 brings the live action of sports events to viewers globally. It assists in breaking geographical barriers for sports enthusiasts.

3.Q: Can I watch all sports through 스포츠중계?
A: Yes, 스포츠중계 covers an array of sports events, including football, baseball, basketball, cricket, and more.

4.Q: Why is 스포츠중계 important?
A: 스포츠중계 bridges the gap between the action happening on the field and viewers, irrespective of their location. It helps to deliver the thrill and excitement of the sport right to your screen.

5.Q: Where can I access 스포츠중계?
A: 스포츠중계 can be accessed on various platforms, including online streaming services, TV broadcasts, mobile apps, and dedicated sports channels like the 스포츠중계.…

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Adherence to Code of Conduct and Prohibition of Accepting Gifts

Illinois Public Employee Code of Conduct

Pursuant to an Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) with the Illinois Office of the Comptroller, the Board may offset debts owed by individuals and entities that are associated with the Board. The Superintendent designee shall review all debts and determine which ones are to be subject to the offset system. A debtor has the right to request a written opportunity to dispute the decision within 14 days of the Superintendent designee’s notification.

Employees are not allowed to accept any gratuity or special favor from individuals or organizations with whom they are doing business.

All employees have a shared responsibility for adhering to this Code of Conduct. You should seek guidance from your supervisor, manager or other appropriate persons within the Company when you have questions about any situations involving ethical standards and integrity.

It is a violation of this policy to accept any gratuity or special favor from individuals or organizations with whom you are doing business. This includes accepting any kind of entertainment, meals, travel or hospitality arrangements from such persons or organizations. You should always be aware of the laws in every country in which you do business regarding giving gifts to government employees and others who act on behalf of a government entity.

It is important that you protect the Company’s property from theft, damage, misuse or waste. You should report any incidents involving Company property to security and your supervisor as soon as possible. Also, you should never disclose any confidential information owned by the Company to non-employees unless it is on a need-to-know basis.

Employees are not allowed to accept any gifts from their supervisors.

Each employee has a responsibility to the Government and its citizens to place loyalty to the Constitution, laws and ethical principles above personal gain. Therefore, it is improper for an employee to accept a gift that is inconsistent with such a principle.

Example: An employee of a Federal agency receives a pair of tickets to a Broadway play from three partners in a law firm that handles mergers. The partners are interested in establishing a business relationship with the agency. The ticket value is $60, which exceeds the $20 limit for gifts based on a single occasion or presentation. The employee may not accept the tickets.

In such situations, the donor should return the item or pay its market value to the Government. If it is not practical to return the tangible item, it may be shared within the recipient’s office or destroyed. In addition, any recommendation that employees contribute toward a gift to an official superior must be accompanied by a statement that the contributors are free to contribute less or nothing at all.

Employees are not allowed to accept any gifts from their subcontractors.

An employee may not accept, either personally or on behalf of the agency, any gratuity or special favor from persons or entities seeking official action by, doing business with, or conducting activities regulated by, the employee’s agency or whose interests may be substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of the employee’s duties. (See paragraphs (d) through (8) of this section.)

A Department of Justice employee working at a regional office in a commercially owned building shares space with various private business tenants. After a fire breaks out in the building, the commercial tenant offers to give all of the employees occupying the Government space one night’s free hotel accommodation as a gesture of good will. The employees may accept this gift under the exception in paragraph (b) of this section for gifts that are not given because of an employee’s official position.

An employee who receives a gift from a prohibited source must promptly return it or, if the item is tangible, pay the donor its market value or destroy it. Market value is the cost that a member of the general public would reasonably expect to incur in purchasing the item.

Employees are not allowed to accept any gifts from their clients.

A public trust requires that employees place loyalty to the Constitution, laws and ethical principles above their personal gain. This principle must guide the employee in all aspects of his or her official duties.

Employees may not solicit or accept gifts or items of monetary value from any person or entity seeking official action, conducting activities regulated by their agency or who are likely to be substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of an employee’s duties. This prohibition is not intended to preclude certain situations, such as an employee’s attendance at a conference sponsored by a private corporation or organization, where participation in the matter would be required and where his or her impartiality could be called into question.

An employee who receives a gift from a prohibited source must promptly return the item or, except where the agency has specific statutory gift acceptance authority, pay its market value. When soliciting contributions for a gift, an employee must include a statement that the contributors are free to contribute less or nothing at all.

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